juan ii comneno

[29], John, alongside his wife who shared in his religious and charitable works, is known to have undertaken church building on a considerable scale, including construction of the Monastery of Christ Pantokrator (Zeyrek Mosque) in Constantinople. The Development of the Komnenian Army: 1081–1180. John II Komnenos or Comnenus was Byzantine emperor from 1118 to 1143. A new theme, named Mylasa and Melanoudion, was created to the south of Thrakesion. '[16] Such an appointment was remarkable, and a radical departure from the nepotism that had characterised the reign of Alexios I. Isaac aimed at replacing his brother as emperor. This monastery, with its three churches, has been described as one of the most important and influential architectural constructions of Middle Byzantine Constantinople. Attached to the monastery was a hospital, of 5 wards, open to people of all social classes. Soon afterwards, Adrian was appointed Archbishop of Bulgaria as John IV of Ohrid. İoannes Komnenos (tr); ヨアニス2世コムニノス (ja); Иоанн II Красивый, Иоанн Комнен, Иоанн II Комнен (ru); Ιωάννης Β´ Κομνηνός, Ιωάννης Β' Κομνηνός (el); Johannes 02 Komnenos (sv); Janez II. Adrian had become a monk, adopting the monastic name John, and had accompanied the emperor on his campaigns of 1138. This was necessary to limit the threat posed by the Normans of southern Italy to Byzantine territory in the Balkans. However, the Hungarians treated this interference as a fighting matter. These invaders had been auxiliaries of the Prince of Kiev. Irene, taken by surprise, was unable either to persuade her son to step down, or to induce Nikephoros to contend for the throne. A Hungarian alliance with the Serbs produced serious consequences for continued Byzantine dominance in the western Balkans. [14] To safeguard his own succession, John crowned his young son Alexios co-emperor in 1122. [40][41][b] John launched a punitive raid against the Serbs, who had dangerously aligned themselves with Hungary, many of whom were rounded up and transported to Nicomedia in Asia Minor to serve as military colonists. This threat became especially acute after Roger II of Sicily made himself supreme in southern Italy and assumed the title of king. The food served at the emperor's table was very frugal and John lectured courtiers who lived in excessive luxury. Juan II Comneno, (Griego: Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos, 13 de septiembre de 1087-8 de abril de 1143), fue emperador bizantino entre 1118 y 1143. These works were ordered to be burnt by the Patriarch of Constantinople, Leo Styppes, in May 1140, on the grounds that they incorporated elements of Bogomil belief and practices. Esta página se editó por última vez el 19 oct 2020 a las 07:57. However, despite being given the highest of court titles, that of sebastokrator, Isaac later became estranged from his brother and became an active conspirator. Buscar milions palabras e frases en todos os idiomas. For this reason, he has been called the Byzantine Marcus Aurelius. [1]​ También derrotó a Hungría y Serbia. John was a pious and dedicated monarch who was determined to undo the damage his empire had suffered following the Battle of Manzikert, half a century earlier. That Alexios I favoured John to succeed him is made obvious by the elevation of his son to the position of co-emperor. [50] He then marched for the final time against the Danishmend Turks, his army proceeding along the southern coast of the Black Sea through Bithynia and Paphlagonia. Angold, Michael, (1995) Church and Society in Byzantium under the Comneni, 1081-1261. She played little part in government, devoting herself to piety and their large brood of children. [63] John initially ignored the wound and it became infected. Juan II Comneno, emperador bizantino (13 de septiembre de 1087 - 8 de abril de 1143), hijo y sucesor de Alejo I Comneno. [64] However, there is very little overt support for this hypothesis in the primary sources. The welcome accorded to ousted claimants of the Hungarian throne in Constantinople was seen by the Byzantines as a useful insurance policy and source of political leverage. The Mousai are addressed directly to John II and exhort him, amongst other things, to maintain justice during his reign and a full treasury. Axouch wisely declined and his influence ensured that Anna's property was eventually returned to her and that John II and his sister became reconciled, at least to a degree. Juan II intervino en los Balcanes aplastando a los restos de los pechenegos (1122), e intervino también en Hungría y Serbia. [3]​ Desafortunadamente, el reinado de Juan es menos conocido que el de su padre Alejo I, o su hijo, Manuel I, por la existencia de menos fuentes contemporáneas o cercanas en el tiempo. Planeaba un nuevo avance hacia Siria y Palestina cuando fue herido mortalmente en un accidente de caza. [20], The younger brother of John II, Isaac, had been of essential support during the accession crisis. Que si le ponían levadura al pan, que si el emperador podía tener importanci… 1143). [27][48][49], In the spring of 1139, the emperor campaigned with success against Turks, probably nomadic Turkomans, who were raiding the regions along the Sangarios River, striking their means of subsistence by driving off their herds. La primera fue la división entre la Iglesia de Roma, liderada por el Papa, y la Iglesia Ortodoxa, liderada por el patriarca de Constantinopla. In particular little is known of the history of John's domestic rule or policies. Irene was born in 1066. Juan II Comneno, (Griego: Ίωάννης Βʹ Κομνηνός, Iōannēs II Komnēnos, 13 de septiembre de 1087-8 de abril de 1143), fue emperador bizantino entre 1118 y 1143. John quickly earned a formidable reputation as a wall-breaker, taking one stronghold after another from his enemies. Yet the change in policy was not motivated by financial concerns. Birkenmeier, John W. (2002). [56] There then followed a joint campaign as John led the armies of Byzantium, Antioch, and Edessa against Muslim Syria. However, the Greeks of the interior of Anatolia were becoming increasingly accustomed to Turkish rule and often found it preferable to that of Byzantium. Alejo was born in 1048, in Estambul, Turquía. [1] In the course of the quarter-century of his reign, John made alliances with the Holy Roman Empire in the west, decisively defeated the Pechenegs, Hungarians and Serbs in the Balkans, and personally led numerous campaigns against the Turks in Asia Minor. Dirigió personalmente numerosas campañas contra los Turcos selyucidas en Asia Menor. [a], The Latin historian William of Tyre described John as short and unusually ugly, with eyes, hair and complexion so dark he was known as 'the Moor'. However, immediately afterwards, in 1122, John quickly transferred his troops to Europe to counter a Pecheneg invasion across the Danube frontier into Paristrion. [24] At much the same time Roger II applied to John II for an imperial bride for his son, but was unsuccessful. [60] This expedition included a planned pilgrimage to Jerusalem on which he intended to take his army. The high point of John's diplomacy in the Levant was in 1137 when he extracted formal homage from the rulers of the Principality of Antioch, County of Edessa and the County of Tripoli. Having secured his route, John embarked on a new expedition into Syria determined to reduce Antioch to direct imperial rule. [34], Though he fought a number of notable pitched battles, the military strategy of John II relied on taking and holding fortified settlements in order to construct defensible frontiers. In order to restore the region to Byzantine control, he led a series of well planned and executed campaigns against the Turks, one of which resulted in the reconquest of the ancestral home of the Komnenoi at Kastamonu (Kastra Komnenon); he then left a garrison of 2,000 men at Gangra. War with the Hungarians and Serbs (1127–1129 – chronology uncertain), War of attrition against the Anatolian Turks (1119–20, 1130–35, 1139–40), Campaigning in Cilicia and Syria (1137–1138), Alexios I was the subject of an extensive biography, the. [28], The reign of John II was taken up with almost constant warfare and, unlike his father who delighted in active participation in theological and doctrinal disputes, John appears to have been content to leave ecclesiastical matters to the Patriarch and the church hierarchy. Bulgaria was an autocephalous see and required a prestigious man as archbishop. [18], Despite his move away from close reliance on the imperial family and its connections, John's court and government had many similarities to that of his father, not least in its serious tone and piety. [37], Following the end of hostilities with Hungary, John was able to concentrate on Asia Minor during most of his remaining years. In the palace John was acclaimed emperor. Thanks to his energetic campaigning, Turkish attempts at expansion in Asia Minor were halted, and John prepared to take the fight to the enemy. [8], John Axouch was John II's closest adviser and was his only intimate friend. John personally conducted approximately twenty five sieges during his reign. During this campaign his eldest son and co-emperor Alexios died of a fever. [35], In 1119–1121 John defeated the Seljuq Turks, establishing his control over southwestern Anatolia. Raymond of Poitiers played for time, putting the proposal to the vote of the Antiochene general assembly. Despite his personal austerity, John had a high conception of the imperial role and would appear in full ceremonial splendour when this was advantageous. The Turks were forced onto the defensive, while John kept his diplomatic situation relatively simple by allying with the Holy Roman Emperor against the Normans of Sicily. También conocido como "Juan el Hermoso" o "Juan el Bueno" (Kaloïōannēs), fue el hijo mayor y sucesor de Alejo I Comneno y de Irene Ducas, y el segundo emperador del periodo conocido como la Restauración Comneno. He is considered an exceptional example of a moral ruler, at a time when cruelty was the norm. In 1130 John became aware of a plot involving Isaac and other magnates as he was leaving to campaign against the Turks. [32] No records from the reign of John mention such persecution, though countermeasures against heresy by the Byzantine Church remained in force. Anna was stripped of her property, which was offered to the emperor's friend John Axouch. The Byzantine desire to be seen as holding a level of suzerainty over all of the Crusader states was taken seriously, as evidenced by the alarm shown in the Kingdom of Jerusalem when John informed King Fulk of his plan for an armed pilgrimage to the Holy City (1142). [12][13] One of the very few records of John's own words concerns the plot against him; he says that after ascending the throne, God "destroyed the cunning plots of my visible and invisible enemies and rescued me from every trap subjecting all my enemies under my feet". Raymond also wanted to hold on to Antioch, which he had agreed to hand over to John if the campaign was successful in capturing Aleppo, Shaizar, Homs, and Hama. Juan … [57], Although John fought hard for the Christian cause in the campaign in Syria, his allies Prince Raymond of Antioch and Count Joscelin II of Edessa remained in their camp playing dice and feasting instead of helping to press the siege of the city of Shaizar. This was done partly to cow the Serbs into submission (Serbia was, at least nominally, a Byzantine protectorate), and partly to strengthen the Byzantine frontier in the east against the Turks. Con la idea de demostrar el ideal bizantino del papel del emperador como líder de la Cristiandad, Juan se dirigió a la Siria musulmana a la cabeza de las fuerzas combinadas del Imperio y de los Estados Cruzados. [6] By the example of his personal morality and piety he effected a notable improvement in the manners of his age. It has been suggested that references to Axouch's possession of the imperial seal early in the reign of John's successor Manuel I meant that he was, in addition to his military duties, the head of the civil administration of the Empire. En particular se conoce poco sobre su gestión y políticas internas. [23] Lothair's successor Conrad III was approached in 1140 for a royal German bride for John's youngest son Manuel. Brill. The Crusader Princes were suspicious of each other and of John, and neither wanted the other to gain from participating in the campaign. The triumph that John celebrated following his capture of Kastamuni in 1133 can be seen as being a public affirmation of John's legitimacy as emperor embodied in the celebration of the defeat of external foes. With the season well advanced John decided to take his army into winter quarters in Cilicia, proposing to renew his attack on Antioch the following year. Komnenian restoration of the Byzantine Empire, Mosaic of John Komnenos, Eirene and Alexios in Hagia Sophia, Centre for Byzantine Studies, University of Thessaloniki, Theodora Megale Komnene ("Despina Khatun"), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_II_Komnenos&oldid=991111887, Byzantine people of the Byzantine–Seljuq Wars, Burials at the Monastery of Christ Pantocrator (Constantinople), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Maria Komnene (twin to Alexios), who married, Bucossi, Alessandra and Suarez, Alex R. (2016), Linardou, K. (2016) "Imperial Impersonations", in, Magdalino, P. (2016) "The Triumph of 1133", in, Stathakopoulos, D. (2016) "John II Komnenos: a historiographical essay", in, Bucossi, Alessandra and Rodriguez Suarez, (2016), This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 09:28. However, Nikephoros remained on good terms with his brother-in-law. Further Byzantine military successes, Choniates mentions several engagements, resulted in a restoration of peace. [42], Early in John's reign the Turks were pressing forward against the Byzantine frontier in western Asia Minor. Aleppo proved too strong to attack, but the fortresses of Balat, Biza'a, Athareb, Maarat al-Numan, and Kafartab were taken by assault. He then advanced on Antioch demanding that the city and its citadel be surrendered to him. The brothers were briefly reconciled in 1138, and Isaac returned to Constantinople; however, a year later Isaac was exiled to Heraclea Pontica, where he remained for the rest of John's life. John's campaigns fundamentally changed the balance of power in the east, forcing the Turks onto the defensive and restoring to the Byzantines many towns, fortresses and cities right across the Anatolian peninsula. [25], John's penchant for interfering with his wife's family, the rulers of Hungary, was problematic. [15][36] The battle put an effective end to the Pechenegs as an independent people; many of the captives taken in the conflict were settled as soldier-farmers within the Byzantine frontier. [59], In early 1142 John campaigned against the Seljuqs of Iconium to secure his lines of communication through Antalya. These problems were left for his gifted and mercurial son, Manuel, to attempt to solve. John II and Irene had 8 children:[70], For other people named John Komnenos, see, Monastery of Christ Pantocrator, Constantinople. John surrounded the Pechenegs as they burst into Thrace, tricked them into believing that he would grant them a favourable treaty, and then launched a devastating surprise attack upon their fortified camp. Revisa las traducciones de 'Juan II Comneno' en Gallego. His speech was dignified, but he engaged in repartee on occasion. [11] Anna's husband Nikephoros had little sympathy with her ambitions, and it was his lack of support which doomed the conspiracy. The monastery also served as the imperial sepulchre for the Komnenian dynasty. [15] After a challenging campaign, the details of which are obscure, the emperor managed to defeat the Hungarians and their Serbian allies at the fortress of Haram or Chramon, which is the modern Nova Palanka; many Hungarian troops were killed when a bridge they were crossing collapsed as they were fleeing from a Byzantine attack. In 1119, the Seljuqs had cut the land route to the city of Attaleia on the southern coast of Anatolia. Indeed, an extant collection of political advice couched in poetic form, called the Mousai, are attributed to Alexios I. The Byzantines were defeated by the conditions rather than by the Turks: the weather was very bad, large numbers of the army's horses died, and provisions became scarce. [38] Eventually John was forced to come to terms; the war was costing him more than it was worth, and he was not prepared to transfer funds from the imperial land forces to the navy for the construction of new ships. Descriptions of him and his actions indicate that he had great self-control and personal courage, and was an excellent strategist and general. [3] Yet despite his physical appearance, John was known as Kaloïōannēs, "John the Good" or "John the Beautiful"; the epithet referred to his character. That Isaac was seeking aid from these princes in a bid to take the Byzantine throne by force is highly likely. John was a pious and dedicated monarch who was determined to undo the damage his empire had suffered … In The Development of the Komnenian Army 1081–1180, he stresses the wisdom of John's approach to warfare, which focused on sieges rather than risking pitched battles. The city was taken, but the citadel defied assault. The palace guard at first refused to admit John without clear proof of his father's wishes, however, the mob surrounding the new emperor simply forced an entry. Also, though it was relatively easy to extract submission and admissions of vassalage from the Anatolian Turks, Serbs and Crusader States of the Levant, converting these relationships into concrete gains for the security of the Empire had proven elusive. Even Raymond II, the Count of Tripoli, hastened northwards to pay homage to John, repeating the homage that his predecessor had given John's father in 1109. The primary sources, Kinnamos and Choniates, give little detail about this campaign, no dates are specified, and what they do say differs considerably. Menos éxito tuvo en su intervención en las luchas entre pisanos y genoveses, sin lograr ayuda de ninguno para aliviar el dominio veneciano del comercio bizantino. However, this alliance proved unable to resist Roger, who extracted by force a recognition of his royal title from the Pope in 1139 (Treaty of Mignano). Alexios endured these constant demands without formally changing his intended successor. Axouch was a Turk captured as a child at the Siege of Nicaea, who had been given as a gift to John's father. In the reign of Alexios I sebastokratores had wielded considerable power and Isaac would have had an expectation of a similar level of authority being devolved on himself. As Alexios lay dying in the monastery of the Mangana on 15 August 1118, John, relying on trusted relatives, especially his brother Isaac Komnenos, gained entry into the monastery and obtained the imperial signet ring from his father. [9][10], Alexios died the night following his son's decisive move to take power. [51][52][53], In the Levant, the emperor sought to reinforce Byzantine claims to suzerainty over the Crusader States and to assert his rights over Antioch. The Serbs were forced to acknowledge Byzantine suzerainty once again. Within a year of his accession, however, John II uncovered a conspiracy to overthrow him which implicated his mother and sister. Two rather ambiguous Byzantine rhetorical allusions were the basis of this theory – all contemporary historical writing unanimously agrees on an accidental cause for the death of John II. Juan married Irene Comneno Ducas (born de Hungría). Juan II fue un monarca pío y dedicado que estaba determinado a deshacer el daño que el Imperio había sufrido desde la Batalla de Manzikert, medio siglo antes. John had lost all confidence in his allies, and a Muslim army under Zengi was approaching to try to relieve the city, therefore the emperor reluctantly accepted the offer. Latin and Muslim sources describe John's energy and personal courage in prosecuting the siege. Yet resistance, particularly from the Danishmends of the northeast, was strong, and the difficult nature of holding the new conquests is illustrated by the fact that Kastamonu was recaptured by the Turks even as John was in Constantinople celebrating its return to Byzantine rule. The ensuing Battle of Beroia was hard fought, John was wounded in the leg by an arrow, but by the end of the day the Byzantine army had won a crushing victory. [58] The emperor was distracted by a Seljuq raid on Cilicia and developments in the west, where he was pursuing a German alliance directed against the threat posed by the Normans of Sicily. The Grand Domestic was the commander in chief of the Byzantine armies. [43] Following this the Hungarians renewed hostilities by attacking Braničevo, which was immediately rebuilt by John. [42] The Hungarians attacked Belgrade, Nish and Sofia; John, who was near Philippopolis in Thrace, counterattacked, supported by a naval flotilla operating on the Danube. (13 sep. 1087–8 abr. [37] The Serbian campaign may have taken place between two distinct phases in the war against Hungary. [4], John II succeeded his father as ruling basileus in 1118, but had already been crowned co-emperor by Alexios I between 1 September and early November, 1092. Also known as "John the Beautiful" or "John the Good", he was the eldest son of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina and the second emperor to rule during the Komnenian restoration of the Byzantine Empire.

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